The Judiciary Act of 1789 was an Act to establish the judicial courts of the USA. Formerly, Article III of the constitution had a generality and gaps whose solutions would be achieved politically. But following the revised ACT, Congress established a limited jurisdiction for district and circuit courts and created a six-person supreme court to fill this gap.
The Judiciary Act of 1789, primarily authored by Senator Ellsworth of Connecticut, established the jurisdiction of the federal court system and the office of the Attorney General. The Act, supported mainly by the federalists, also created a six-person judiciary composed of the Chief Justice and five Associate Justices.
Senator Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut authored the Judiciary Act of 1789 and signed it into law by President George Washington. The Federalists were the biggest supporters of the revision of Article III, which created a six-person Supreme Court.
Apart from establishing the jurisdiction of the federal court system, the Act also allowed Congress the authority to create lower federal courts and the office of the Attorney General.
Additionally, the Judiciary Act of 1789 also determined the coexistence of the federal courts with the courts in each state. Although the original Act has been modified over time, its basic structure remains unchanged.